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Goreme, ancient name of which is Korama, used to be known as Avcilar until recently. Today, modern Goreme, integrated with the fairy chimneys has some interesting and fascinating scenery.

It is not surprising to see a marvellous fairy chimney next to a modern building. The fairy chimney in the centrum is known as Roman Castle and with the flag on it, it's the symbol of the City. An increase in the number of modern hotels beside the small authentic guest houses is the result of development in Goreme.

Uzundere (stream) running through the city towards the north, irrigates Guvercinlik Valley far ahead. If you walk along the Uzundere towards Uchisar direction, you can also visit the Durmus Kadir Church. There are Yusuf Koc and Esikli churches across it. In the Goreme-Uchisar direction, it is possible to reach those churches by passing the fairy chimney called Haci'nin Yeri in which there is a restaurant with an interesting ambiance.


Hagia Sophia, which is one of the outstanding monuments in the history of art on our planet, was been called a "Megalo Ecclesia" (meaning a colossal church) when it was first constructed. This great monument has, however, been known as Sophia since the Fifth Century. This architectural marvel was not, however, dedicated to a Saint as one might think, but has been dedicated to the Holy Wisdom (Theia Sophia), which is the second element of the Christian Trinity. The populace of Byzantium continued for a long time to call this church "Megalo Ecclesia". After the conquest of Byzantium in 1453, the name Hagia Sophia has survived to modern times.

Hagia Sophia
Ancient writers largely agree that Ephesus was founded sometime between 1500 and 1000 B.C, and this is supported by archaeological evidence at the site. Later, it appears that lonians settled in the cities of lonia. According to legend, under the leadership of Androklos, son of Kodros, the migrants arrived in Anatolia, and asked their sages where their new city should be established. The sages prophesied that a wild boar and a fish would lead them to the site of the new settlement. One day, Androklos, himself a new migrant from Greece, was cooking fish on an open fire, when a fish flew from the pan into the nearby bushes. Sparks from the fire also ignited the bushes, and as they flared up, a wild boar ran out of the bushes to escape from the flames. Androklos pursued and killed the boar. Then recalling the words of the wise men, he built his city on this site, which is at a place about 1200 metres west of the Artemision, where the original city of Ephesus was founded. The cities of Ionia were later joined together in a federation entitled the Ionian confederacy. Androklos, the city's first king, died in battle with the Carians, and the Ephesians erected a memorial to their first monarch. In the 7th century B.C, Ephesus was invaded by the Cimmerians, who razed the city to the ground, and burnt what they could, including the temple of Artemis. After this, Ephesus was ruled by a series of tyrants.

Throughout its later history, consequent to this early setback, Ephesus seemed protected from harm by the gods, and prospered either through chance or through the politics of its citizens. In the 6th century B.C, the Artemis temple was restored by the Lydian King, Croesus, who resettled the inhabitants around the temple. But when Croesus was defeated in battle with the Persians, Ephesus fell under Persian rule, along with the other cities of lonia.

Ephesus Celcius Library

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